The stages of the child’s growth process are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To further support the growth and development of healthy children, parents need to fulfill their children’s basic needs, including nutrition, stimulation, immunization, play activities, and adequate sleep.

Keep in mind that child growth and child development are two different things, but always related and difficult to separate. Growth is a change that is quantitative or can be measured. Growth usually involves the size and biological structure of the child’s body. While what is meant by development is quantitative and qualitative changes that include increasing the ability (skill) of the structure and functions of the body that are more complex. Development occurs in a regular pattern along with the process of maturation / maturity of children.

So that you can better understand the process of growth and development that occurs in children, let us know more about the stages of child development that take place in the age phase under three years.

Physical growth

The stages of child development include body shape, and can be easily seen by the eye. Your child’s body size increases, ranging from weight, height, head circumference, chest circumference, arm circumference, and so forth.

To estimate a child’s normal body weight (in kilograms), you can use the formula from Richard E. Behrman, namely:

Born: 3.25 kg
3-12 months: age (months) + 9): 2
1-6 years: age (years) x 2 + 8

Meanwhile, the estimated ideal child height is:
1 year: 1.5 x height at birth
4 years: 2x height at birth
6 years: 1.5 x height at the age of 1 year

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Motor Development

Motor development is divided in two, namely gross motor and fine motor. Rough motoric is a body movement that uses large muscles or all members of the body that are affected by the maturity of the Little One. Examples of gross motor development are the ability to roll over, face down, sit, kick, run, up and down stairs, jump, and so on.

While what is meant by fine motor is a movement that uses smooth muscles or certain parts of the body. For example, the ability to grasp objects, move objects from the hand, scribbling, cutting, arranging blocks, and so forth.

Stages of good and healthy child development are those that take place in accordance with the stages of age (milestones). For example, when a child is 12-18 months old he or she can stand alone without holding on. Or, at the age of 18 months he was able to clap and wave.

Child's Growth

gross motor development, photo via google

Cognitive development

This development has to do with knowledge, or how children learn and think about their environment. The process of child development has been going on since the child was born. Babies have the ability to store information that comes from vision, hearing, and through other senses. Not only that, your baby is also able to respond to various information systematically.

Some characteristics of cognitive development in children under 3 years old
● 0-12 months
Start developing concepts (eg being aware of hunger), enjoying playing, increasing interest in the environment, understanding cause and effect, understanding objects, exploring around, exploring objects in various ways (eg inserting objects into the mouth), and playing with simple patterns .
● 12-24 months
Can find hidden objects, can respond to simple instructions, know parts of his body, can play pretend, learn to eat and drink by himself, and imitate household chores.
● 24-36 months
Can designate one or more parts of his body when asked, can correctly name the two objects or more, able to combine two words into sentences, and use his own name to call himself.

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Language Development

The stage of child development also includes the ability to speak and speak. Language skills can be an indicator of all child development. Through children’s language skills, you can detect delays or abnormalities in other systems, such as cognitive, sensorimotor, psychological, emotional, and environmental abilities around the child.

Some characteristics of language development in children under three years
● 0-12 months
Responding to voices, showing social interest in face and person, babbling (repeating consonants / vowels), understanding verbal commands, and being able to point in the desired direction.
● 12-24 months
Able to produce and understand single words, able to designate body parts, vocabulary increases rapidly, and is able to pronounce sentences consisting of 2 words or more.
● 24-36 months
Having a good understanding of familiar conversations (for example by the family), being able to have a conversation through question-answer, and being able to ask “why”.

Psychosocial Development

Psychosocial development is related to psychological aspects, such as emotions, motivation, personal development, and how children relate to others. In this stage of growth and development, children also begin to learn to be responsible and control their feelings.

Some characteristics of psychosocial development in children under three years:
● 0-12 months
Bonding between parent and baby, smiling, chattering, preferring mother, responding if her name is called, happy to be invited to play, and understanding simple commands.
● 12-24 months
Ask for something by pointing (without crying / whining), hugging parents, imitating activities at home, and starting to share toys with other children.
● 24-36 months
Showing anger when obstructed, being able to play pretend, starting to form social relationships and playing with other children.

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Child development at an early age is often called walking very fast. Therefore, make sure you always monitor this process so that no developments are missed, huh. If there are signal barriers in the process of child development, you can immediately find out the problem and take care to overcome it early.